1. Cook rice
Preheat oven to 375. In a small saucepan, combine rice, 1¼ cups water, and ½ teaspoon salt; bring to a boil. Cover and cook over low heat until rice is tender and water is absorbed, about 17 minutes. Keep covered until ready to serve.
2. Prep ingredients
Finely chop onion. Halve poblano pepper lengthwise, discard stem and seeds, then cut into ½-inch pieces. Finely chop 1 large garlic clove. Drain and rinse hominy. In a small bowl, combine 1 tablespoon each of chili powder and flour, 1 teaspoon each of sugar and salt, and ¼ teaspoon pepper.
3. Start pozole
Heat 2 tablespoons oil in a medium Dutch oven or pot over medium-high. Add onions and poblano peppers; cook, stirring occasionally, until lightly browned, 5–6 minutes. Add turkey and garlic; cook, breaking meat up into small pieces and stirring occasionally, until turkey is lightly browned in spots, about 5 minutes.
4. Finish pozole
Stir chili powder mixture into pot with turkey. Cook until fragrant, about 2 minutes. Add hominy and 2 cups water. Bring to a boil, scraping up any bits stuck to bottom of the pot. Simmer, partially covered, over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until pozole is thickened and flavorful, and turkey is cooked through, about 15 minutes. Season to taste with salt and pepper.